1. Hellstrøm, T., Kaufmann, T., Andelic, N., Soberg, H.L., Sigurdardottir, S., Helseth, E., Andreassen, O.A., and Westlye, L.T. (2017). Predicting outcome 12 months after mild traumatic brain injury in patients ad- mitted to a neurosurgery service. Front. Neurol. 8, 125.
2. Ponsford, J., Cameron, P., Fitzgerald, M., Grant, M., Mikocka-Walus, A., and Scho¨nberger, M. (2012). Predictors of postconcussive symp- toms 3 months after mild traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychology 26, 304–313.
3. Silverberg, N.D., and Iverson, G.L. (2011). Etiology of the post- concussion syndrome: physiogenesis and psychogenesis revisited. NeuroRehabilitation 29, 317–329.
4. Silverberg, N.D., Gardner, A., Brubacher, J.R., Panenka, W., Li, J.J., and Iverson, G.L. (2015). Systematic review of multivariable prognostic models for mild traumatic brain injury. J. Neurotrauma 32, 517–526.
5. Stein, M.B., Ursano, R.J., Campbell-Sills, L., Colpe, L.J., Fullerton, C.S., Heeringa, S.G., Nock, M.K., Sampson, N.A., Schoenbaum, M., Sun, X., Jain, S., and Kessler, R.C. (2016). Prognostic Indicators of persistent post-concussive symptoms after deployment-related mild traumatic brain injury: a prospective longitudinal study in U.S. Army soldiers. J. Neurotrauma 33, 2125–2132.
5. Stulemeijer, M., van der Werf, S., Borm, G.F., and Vos, P.E. (2008). Early prediction of favourable recovery 6 months after mild traumatic brain injury. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 79, 936–942.
7. van der Naalt, J., Timmerman, M.E., de Koning, M.E., van der Horn, H.J., Scheenen, M.E., Jacobs, B., Hageman, G., Yilmaz, T., Roks, G., and Spikman, J.M. (2017). Early predictors of outcome after mild traumatic brain injury (UPFRONT): an observational cohort study. Lancet. Neurol. 16, 532–540.
8. Vikane, E., Hellstrøm, T., Røe, C., Bautz-Holter, E., Aßmus, J., and Skouen, J.S. (2016). Predictors for return to work in subjects with mild traumatic brain injury. Behav. Neurol. 2016, 8026414.
9. Silverberg, N.D., Hallam, B.J., Rose, A., Underwood, H., Whitfield, K., Thornton, A.E., and Whittal, M.L. (2013). Cognitive-behavioral prevention of postconcussion syndrome in at-risk patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial. J. Head Trauma Rehabil. 28, 313–322.
10. Nederhand, M.J., IJzerman, M.J., Hermens, H.J., Turk, D.C., and Zilvold, G. (2004). Predictive value of fear avoidance in developing chronic neck pain disability: consequences for clinical decision making. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 85, 496–501.
11. Pincus, T., Smeets, R.J.E.M., Simmonds, M.J., and Sullivan, M.J.L. (2010). The fear avoidance model disentangled: improving the clinical utility of the fear avoidance model. Clin. J. Pain 26, 739–746.
12. Wertli, M.M., Rasmussen-Barr, E., Weiser, S., Bachmann, L.M., and Brunner, F. (2014). The role of fear avoidance beliefs as a prognostic factor for outcome in patients with nonspecific low back pain: a systematic review. Spine J. 14, 816–36.e4.
13. Vlaeyen, J.W., and Linton, S.J. (2000). Fear-avoidance and its con- sequences in chronic musculoskeletal pain: a state of the art. Pain 85, 317–332.
14. Martin, P. (2000). Headache triggers: To avoid or not to avoid, that is the question. Psychol. Health 15, 801–809.
15. Vercoulen, J.H., Swanink, C.M., Galama, J.M., Fennis, J.F., Jongen, P.J., Hommes, O.R., van der Meer, J.W., and Bleijenberg, G. (1998). The persistence of fatigue in chronic fatigue syndrome and multiple sclerosis: development of a model. J. Psychosom. Res. 45, 507–517.
16. Whalley, M.G., and Cane, D.A. (2017). A cognitive-behavioral model of persistent postural-perceptual dizziness. Cogn. Behav. Pract. 24, 72–89.
17. Hayes, S.C., Wilson, K.G., Gifford, E. V, Follette, V.M., and Strosahl, K. (1996). Experimental avoidance and behavioral disorders: a func- tional dimensional approach to diagnosis and treatment. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 64, 1152–1168.
18. Silverberg ND, Panenka WJ, Iverson GL. Fear Avoidance and Clinical Outcomes from Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. J Neurotrauma. 2018;35(16):1864-1873. doi:10.1089/neu.2018.5662
19. Edwards, R.R., Dworkin, R.H., Sullivan, M.D., Turk, D.C., and Wasan, A.D. (2016). The role of psychosocial processes in the de- velopment and maintenance of chronic pain. J. Pain 17, Suppl 9, T70–T92.
20. Hasenbring, M.I., Hallner, D., and Rusu, A.C. (2009). Fear-avoidance- and endurance-related responses to pain: Development and validation of the Avoidance-Endurance Questionnaire (AEQ). Eur. J. Pain 13, 620–628.
21. Hasenbring, M.I., Hallner, D., Klasen, B., Streitlein-Bo¨hme, I., Will- burger, R., and Rusche, H. (2012). Pain-related avoidance versus en- durance in primary care patients with subacute back pain: Psychological characteristics and outcome at a 6-month follow- up. Pain 153, 211–217.
22. Plaas, H., Sudhaus, S., Willburger, R., and Hasenbring, M.I. (2014). Physical activity and low back pain: the role of subgroups based on the avoidance-endurance model. Disabil. Rehabil. 36, 749–755.
23. Band, R., Barrowclough, C., Caldwell, K., Emsley, R., and Wearden, A. (2017). Activity patterns in response to symptoms in patients being treated for chronic fatigue syndrome: an experience sampling meth- odology study. Health Psychol. 36, 264–269.
24. Hou, R., Moss-Morris, R., Peveler, R., Mogg, K., Bradley, B.P., and Belli, A. (2012). When a minor head injury results in enduring symptoms: a prospective investigation of risk factors for post- concussional syndrome after mild traumatic brain injury. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 83, 217–223.
25. Symonds, C. (1928). The differential diagnosis and treatment of ce- rebral states consequent upon head injuries. Br. Med. J. 2, 829–832.
26. Martin, P.R., and MacLeod, C. (2009). Behavioral management of headache triggers: avoidance of triggers is an inadequate strategy. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 29, 483–495.
27. Whalley, M.G., and Cane, D.A. (2017). A cognitive-behavioral model of persistent postural-perceptual dizziness. Cogn. Behav. Pract. 24, 72–89.
28. Silverberg, N.D., and Iverson, G.L. (2013). Is rest after concussion ‘‘the best medicine?’’: recommendations for activity resumption fol- lowing concussion in athletes, civilians, and military service members. J. Head Trauma Rehabil. 28, 250–259.
29. Scheenen, M.E., Spikman, J.M., de Koning, M.E., van der Horn, H.J., Roks, G., Hageman, G., and van der Naalt, J. (2016). Patients ‘‘At Risk’’ of Suffering from Persistent Complaints after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: The Role of Coping, Mood Disorders, and Post- Traumatic Stress. J. Neurotrauma, neu.2015.4381.
30. Maestas, K.L., Sander, A.M., Clark, A.N., van Veldhoven, L.M., Struchen, M.A, Sherer, M., and Hannay, H.J. (2014). Preinjury coping, emotional functioning, and quality of life following uncomplicated and complicated mild traumatic brain injury. J. Head Trauma Rehabil. 29, 407–417.
31. Potter, S., and Brown, R.G. (2012). Cognitive behavioural therapy and persistent post-concussional symptoms: integrating conceptual issues and practical aspects in treatment. Neuropsychol. Rehabil. 22, 1–25.
32. Klonoff, P.S., Lage, G.A., and Chiapello, D.A. (1993). Varieties of the catastrophic reaction to brain injury: A self psychology perspective., in: Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic. pps. 227–241.
33. Kay, T., Newman, B., Cavallo, M., and Ezrachi, O. (1992). Toward a neuropsychological model of functional disability after mild traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychology 6, 371–384.
34. Van Damme, S., and Kindermans, H. (2015). A self-regulation per- spective on avoidance and persistence behavior in chronic pain: new theories, new challenges? Clin. J. Pain 31, 115–122.
35. Andrews, N.E., Strong, J., and Meredith, P.J. (2016). The relationship between approach to activity engagement, specific aspects of physical function, and pain duration in chronic pain. Clin. J. Pain 32, 20–31.
36. Nielson, W.R., Jensen, M.P., Karsdorp, P.A., and Vlaeyen, J.W.S. (2013). Activity pacing in chronic pain: concepts, evidence, and future directions. Clin. J. Pain 29, 461–468.
37. Hasenbring, M.I., and Verbunt, J.A. (2010). Fear-avoidance and endurance-related responses to pain: new models of behavior and their consequences for clinical practice. Clin. J. Pain 26, 747–753
38. Grool, A.M., Aglipay, M., Momoli, F., Meehan, W.P., Freedman, S.B., Yeates, K.O., Gravel, J., Gagnon, I., Boutis, K., Meeuwisse, W., Barrowman, N., Ledoux, A.A., Osmond, M.H., and Zemek, R. (2016). Association between early participation in physical activity following acute concussion and persistent postconcussive symptoms in children and adolescents. JAMA 316, 2504–2514.
39. Schneider, K.J., Leddy, J.J., Guskiewicz, K.M., Seifert, T., McCrea, M., Silverberg, N.D., Feddermann-Demont, N., Iverson, G.L., Hay- den, A., and Makdissi, M. (2017). Rest and treatment/rehabilitation following sport-related concussion: a systematic review. Br. J. Sports Med. 51, 930–934.
40. Silverberg, N., Iverson, G., and Panenka, W. (2017). Cogniphobia in mild traumatic brain injury. J. Neurotrauma 34, 2141–2146.
41. Nakao, M. and Barsky, A. (2007). Clinical application of somato- sensory amplification in psychosomatic medicine. Biopsychosoc. Med. 1.
42. Asmundson, G., Norton, P., and Norton, G. (1999). Beyond pain: the role of fear and avoidance in chronicity. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 19, 97–119.
43. Nijs, J., Roussel, N., Van Oosterwijck, J., De Kooning, M., Ickmans, K., Struyf, F., Meeus, M., and Lundberg, M. (2013). Fear of move- ment and avoidance behaviour toward physical activity in chronic- fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia: state of the art and implications for clinical practice. Clin. Rheumatol. 32, 1121–1129.
44. Kleinstauber, M., Jasper, K., Schweda, I., Hiller, W., Andersson, G., and Weise, C. (2013). The role of fear-avoidance cognitions and be- haviors in patients with chronic tinnitus. Cogn. Behav. Ther. 42, 84–99.
45. Chrisman, S., Whitlock, K., Mendoza, J., Burton, M., Somers, E., Hsu, A., Fay, L., Palermo, T., and Rivara, F. (2019). Pilot randomized con- trolled trial of an exercise program requiring minimal in-person visits for youth with persistent sport-related concussion. Front. Neurol. 10, 623.
46. Broshek, D., De Marco, A., and Freeman, J. (2015). A review of post- concussion syndrome and psychological factors associated with con- cussion. Brain Inj. 29, 228–237.
47. Mallya, S., Sutherland, J., Pongracic, S., Mainland, B., and Ornstein, T. (2015). The manifestation of anxiety disorders after traumatic brain injury: a review. J. Neurotrauma 32, 411–421.
48. Wood, R., O’Hagan, G., Williams, C., McCabe, M., and Chadwisk, N. (2014). Anxiety sensitivity and alexithymia as mediators of post- concussion syndrome following mild traumatic brain injury. J. Head Trauma Rehabil. 29, E9–E17.
49. Snell DL, Siegert RJ, Debert C, Cairncross M, Silverberg ND. Evaluation of the Fear Avoidance Behavior after Traumatic Brain Injury Questionnaire. J Neurotrauma. 2020;1573:1566-1573. doi:10.1089/neu.2019.6729.